Overview of open and commercially usable LLMs

By Yorick van Pelt

This page contains an overview of source-available LLMs. Weights have been released for all of these models, but in some cases, restrictions apply to the usage of the weights. Several of these models can be tested at https://chat.lmsys.org/

The legal situation of copyrighting LLM weights is unclear (in Europe and the US), but source code definitely falls under copyright protection.


  • In general, our investigation has centered on commercially usable models. There are a lot of fine-tuned llamas that have been omitted, but they are generally not that different.
  • Unaligned chat/instruct models: not a big research focus, as they are all based on llama. However, they may be useful in case you're hitting “Sorry, as an AI language model..” a lot.

Various Restrictions

The Models section uses various tags for usage restrictions:

  • Non-commercial means the weights have been released under a license that prohibits commercial use.
  • No-Evil means the weights have been released under a license that prohibits use for illegal or unethical activities. There are two licenses in wide use.
    • The Together license Includes some examples of misuse.

      Using the model to generate content that is cruel to individuals is a misuse of this model. This includes, but is not limited to:

      • Generating fake news, misinformation, or propaganda
      • Promoting hate speech, discrimination, or violence against individuals or groups
      • Impersonating individuals or organizations without their consent
      • Engaging in cyberbullying or harassment
      • Defamatory content
      • Spamming or scamming
      • Sharing confidential or sensitive information without proper authorization
      • Violating the terms of use of the model or the data used to train it
      • Creating automated bots for malicious purposes such as spreading malware, phishing scams, or spamming
    • The RAIL license: License - a Hugging Face Space by bigscience

    While this is (hopefully) not a problem for your intended use, it's good to keep this restriction in mind, and don't consider the model fully open.

Model list

Name Tags Trained Based on Company Date Dataset Params
GPT-2 Completion OpenAI 2019/02/14 1.5B
gpt-j-6b Completion EleutherAI 2021/05/01 The Pile 6B
GPT-NeoX-20B Completion EleutherAI 2022/04/14 The Pile 20B
BLOOM No-Evil Completion BigScience 2022/07/06 176B
flan-t5 Completion Google 2022/10/20 11B, 3B
RWKV-4-pile Completion 2022/10/22 The Pile
Llama Non-commercial Completion Meta 2023/02/24 13B, 33B, 65B, 7B
oasst-pythia-12b Assistant Pythia LAION 2023/03/07 openassistant/oasst1 12B
Dolly Instruct Pythia Databricks 2023/03/24 databricks-dolly-15k 12B, 3B, 6B, 7B
Cerebras-GPT-13B Completion Cerebras 2023/03/28 The Pile 13B
Vicuna Non-commercial Chat Llama LMSYS 2023/03/30 ShareGPT 13B, 7B
GPT-NeoXT-Chat-Base-20B No-Evil Chat GPT-NeoX-20B Together 2023/03/30
RWKV-4-raven Chat RWKV-4-pile BlinkDL 2023/04/01 ShareGPT 1.5B, 14B, 3B, 7B
Koala Non-commercial Chat Llama Berkeley AI Research 2023/04/03 13B, 7B
Pythia Completion GPT-NeoX-20B EleutherAI 2023/04/03 The Pile
gpt4all-j Chat gpt-j-6b Nomic 2023/04/12 databricks-dolly-15k, ShareGPT 6B
Fastchat-T5-3b-v1.0 Chat flan-t5 LMSYS 2023/05/01 ShareGPT 3B
StarCoder Code 2023/05/03 The Stack 16B
MPT-7B-storywriter-65k+ Completion MPT-7B MosaicML 2023/05/05 7B
MPT-7B-Instruct Instruct MPT-7B MosaicML 2023/05/05 databricks-dolly-15k, Anthropic/hh-rlhf 7B
MPT-7B-Chat Chat MPT-7B MosaicML 2023/05/05 7B
MPT-7B Completion MosaicML 2023/05/05 7B
RedPajama-INCITE-Chat No-Evil Chat RedPajama-INCITE-Base Together 2023/05/05 RedPajama 3B, 7B
RedPajama-INCITE-Instruct No-Evil Instruct RedPajama-INCITE-Base Together 2023/05/05 RedPajama 3B, 7B
RedPajama-INCITE-Base No-Evil Completion Together 2023/05/05 RedPajama 3B, 7B
StarCoderPlus No-Evil Completion StarCoder bigcode 2023/05/08 RefinedWeb 16B
Falcon-rw Completion TII UAE 2023/06/05 RefinedWeb 1B, 7B
Falcon-Instruct Chat Falcon TII UAE 2023/06/05 40B, 7B
Falcon Completion TII UAE 2023/06/05 40B, 7B
StarChat-β No-Evil Chat StarCoderPlus Huggingface 2023/06/07 openassistant/oasst1 16B


Name Group
The Pile EleutherAI
RedPajama Together
databricks-dolly-15k Databricks
openassistant/oasst1 LAION
RefinedWeb TII UAE
The Stack bigcode


Name Tags URL
EleutherAI Research group https://www.eleuther.ai/
Google https://ai.googleblog.com/
Meta https://ai.facebook.com/
Cerebras https://www.cerebras.net/
LMSYS Research group https://lmsys.org/
Nomic https://nomic.ai/
OpenAI https://openai.com/
Together https://www.together.xyz/
Databricks https://www.databricks.com/
MosaicML https://www.mosaicml.com/
Berkeley AI Research (BAIR) Research group https://bair.berkeley.edu/blog/

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